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R - Programming language

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R is a programming language created in 1993 by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman.

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R is an open source programming language and software environment for statistical computing and graphics that is supported by the R Foundation for Statistical Computing. The R language is widely used among statisticians and data miners for developing statistical software and data analysis. Polls, surveys of data miners, and studies of scholarly literature databases show that R's popularity has increased substantially in recent years. Read more on Wikipedia...

Example from Riju:
print("Hello, world!")
Example from hello-world:
cat("Hello World")
# Hello World in R cat("Hello world\n")
Example from Linguist:
hello <- function() { print("hello, world!") } hello()
Example from Wikipedia:
install.packages("caTools") # install external package library(caTools) # external package providing write.gif function jet.colors <- colorRampPalette(c("#00007F", "blue", "#007FFF", "cyan", "#7FFF7F", "yellow", "#FF7F00", "red", "#7F0000")) dx <- 400 # define width dy <- 400 # define height C <- complex( real=rep(seq(-2.2, 1.0, length.out=dx), each=dy ), imag=rep(seq(-1.2, 1.2, length.out=dy), dx ) ) C <- matrix(C,dy,dx) # reshape as square matrix of complex numbers Z <- 0 # initialize Z to zero X <- array(0, c(dy,dx,20)) # initialize output 3D array for (k in 1:20) { # loop with 20 iterations Z <- Z^2+C # the central difference equation X[,,k] <- exp(-abs(Z)) # capture results } write.gif(X, "Mandelbrot.gif", col=jet.colors, delay=100)

Keywords in R

if else repeat while function for in next break TRUE FALSE NULL Inf NaN NA NAinteger NAreal NAcomplex NAcharacter ...

Language features

Feature Supported Token Example
While Loops
Assignment =
Print() Debugging print
Line Comments #
# A comment
# R has pipes via a library like dplyr
starwars %>% filter(species == "Droid")
Operator Overloading
Lazy Evaluation
File Imports
# A comment
Bitwise Operators
! x
x & y
x && y
x | y
x || y
xor(x, y)
Strings "
"hello world"
Case Insensitive Identifiers X
Semantic Indentation X
Zero-based numbering X
MultiLine Comments X

Books about R from ISBNdb

title authors year publisher
Building Bioinformatics Solutions: with Perl, R and MySQL Bessant, Conrad and Shadforth, Ian and Oakley, Darren 2009 Oxford University Press
Introduction to Scientific Programming and Simulation Using R (Chapman & Hall/CRC The R Series) Jones, Owen and Maillardet, Robert and Robinson, Andrew 2014 Chapman and Hall/CRC
Data Mining and Business Analytics with R Ledolter, Johannes 2013 Wiley
Introducing Monte Carlo Methods with R (Use R!) Christian P. Robert and George Casella 2009 Springer Verlag
Software for Data Analysis: Programming with R (Statistics and Computing) John M. Chambers 2008 Springer
Interactive Web-Based Data Visualization with R, plotly, and shiny (Chapman & Hall/CRC The R Series) Sievert, Carson 2020 Chapman and Hall/CRC
Data Manipulation with R (Use R!) Spector, Phil 2008 Springer
Practical Statistics for Data Scientists: 50+ Essential Concepts Using R and Python Bruce, Peter and Bruce, Andrew and Gedeck, Peter 2020 O'Reilly Media
A First Course in Statistical Programming with R Braun, W. John 2007 Cambridge University Press
R Programming for Bioinformatics (Chapman & Hall/CRC Computer Science & Data Analysis) Gentleman, Robert 2008 Chapman and Hall/CRC
Web Application Development with R Using Shiny Beeley, Chris 2013 Packt Publishing
Introduction to Scientific Programming and Simulation Using R (Chapman & Hall/CRC The R Series) Jones, Owen and Maillardet, Robert and Robinson, Andrew 2009 Chapman and Hall/CRC
Linear Models with R (Chapman & Hall/CRC Texts in Statistical Science) Faraway, Julian J. 2004 Chapman and Hall/CRC
R Packages: Organize, Test, Document, and Share Your Code Wickham, Hadley 2015 O'Reilly Media
R for Programmers: Mastering the Tools Zhang, Dan 2016 CRC Press
Building a Recommendation System with R Gorakala, Suresh K. and Usuelli, Michele 2015 Packt Publishing
Mathematics and Programming for Machine Learning with R Claster, William 2020 CRC Press
RStudio for R Statistical Computing Cookbook Cirillo, Andrea 2016 Packt Publishing
Quantitative Corpus Linguistics with R Gries, Stefan Th. 2016 Routledge
Functional Data Structures in R: Advanced Statistical Programming in R Mailund, Thomas 2017 Apress
Analysis of Integrated and Cointegrated Time Series with R (Use R) Pfaff, Bernhard 2005 Springer
Visual Linguistics With R Christoph Rühlemann 2020
Efficient R Programming: A Practical Guide to Smarter Programming Gillespie, Colin and Lovelace, Robin 2017 O'Reilly Media
Statistical Analysis with R M. Quick, John 2010 Packt Publishing
Big Data Analytics with R: Leverage R Programming to uncover hidden patterns in your Big Data Walkowiak, Simon 2016 Packt Publishing
Getting Started with RStudio: An Integrated Development Environment for R Verzani, John 2011 O'Reilly Media
Practical Data Science with R Nina Zumel and John Mount 2019 Manning Publications
A First Course in Statistical Programming with R Braun, W. John and Murdoch, Duncan J. 2007 Cambridge University Press
An Introduction to R for Spatial Analysis and Mapping Brunsdon, Chris and Comber, Lex 2015 SAGE Publications Ltd
R Machine Learning Essentials Usuelli, Michele 2014 Packt Publishing
R Data Structures and Algorithms Prakash, Dr. PKS and Rao, Achyutuni Sri Krishna 2016 Packt Publishing
R Machine Learning Projects: Implement supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning techniques using R 3.5 Chinnamgari, Dr. Sunil Kumar 2019 Packt Publishing
Machine Learning Using R: With Time Series and Industry-Based Use Cases in R Ramasubramanian, Karthik and Singh, Abhishek 2018 Apress
Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis: With Exercises, Solutions and Applications in R Heumann, Christian and Schomaker, Michael and Shalabh 2017 Springer
The Essential R Reference Gardener, Mark 2012 Wiley
Using R for Statistics Baldock, Sarah 2014 Apress
R for Data Science Hadley Wickham; Garrett Grolemund 20161212 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Beyond Spreadsheets with R: A beginner's guide to R and RStudio Carroll, Dr Jonathan 2018 Manning Publications
Advanced R 4 Data Programming and the Cloud: Using PostgreSQL, AWS, and Shiny Wiley, Matt and Wiley, Joshua F. 2020 Apress
Beginning Data Science with R Pathak, Manas A. 2014 Springer

Publications about R from Semantic Scholar

title authors year citations influentialCitations
brms: An R Package for Bayesian Multilevel Models Using Stan P. Bürkner 2017 3062 267
Advanced Bayesian Multilevel Modeling with the R Package brms P. Bürkner 2017 928 89
Support Vector Machines in R Alexandros Karatzoglou and David Meyer and K. Hornik 2006 555 32
EBImage—an R package for image processing with applications to cellular phenotypes Grégoire Pau and Florian Fuchs and O. Sklyar and M. Boutros and W. Huber 2010 507 26
Evaluating the Design of the R Language - Objects and Functions for Data Analysis Floréal Morandat and B. Hill and Leo Osvald and J. Vitek 2012 125 4
formr: A study framework allowing for automated feedback generation and complex longitudinal experience-sampling studies using R Ruben C. Arslan and Matthias Walther and Cyril S. Tata 2019 98 3
Optimizing R language execution via aggressive speculation Lukas Stadler and Adam Welc and Christian Humer and Mick J. Jordan 2016 29 0
Tight Coupling of R and Distributed Linear Algebra for High-Level Programming with Big Data D. Schmidt and G. Ostrouchov and Wei-Chen Chen and Pragneshkumar B. Patel 2012 13 0
The Functional Programming Language R and the Paradigm of Dynamic Scientific Programming - (Position Paper) B. T. Widemann and Carl Friedrich Bolz-Tereick and C. Grelck 2012 5 0
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