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CSS - Stylesheet language

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CSS, aka Cascading Style Sheets, is a stylesheet language created in 1996 by Håkon Wium Lie.

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Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language. Although most often used to set the visual style of web pages and user interfaces written in HTML and XHTML, the language can be applied to any XML document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL, and is applicable to rendering in speech, or on other media. Along with HTML and JavaScript, CSS is a cornerstone technology used by most websites to create visually engaging webpages, user interfaces for web applications, and user interfaces for many mobile applications. Read more on Wikipedia...

Example from hello-world:
body::before { content: "Hello World"; }
/* Hello World in CSS */ body:before { content: "Hello World"; }
Example from Linguist:
/*! * Bootstrap v2.3.1 * * Copyright 2012 Twitter, Inc * Licensed under the Apache License v2.0 * * * Designed and built with all the love in the world @twitter by @mdo and @fat. */ .clearfix{*zoom:1;}.clearfix:before,.clearfix:after{display:table;content:"";line-height:0;} .clearfix:after{clear:both;} .hide-text{font:0/0 a;color:transparent;text-shadow:none;background-color:transparent;border:0;} .input-block-level{display:block;width:100%;min-height:30px;-webkit-box-sizing:border-box;-moz-box-sizing:border-box;box-sizing:border-box;} article,aside,details,figcaption,figure,footer,header,hgroup,nav,section{display:block;} audio,canvas,video{display:inline-block;*display:inline;*zoom:1;} audio:not([controls]){display:none;} html{font-size:100%;-webkit-text-size-adjust:100%;-ms-text-size-adjust:100%;} a:focus{outline:thin dotted #333;outline:5px auto -webkit-focus-ring-color;outline-offset:-2px;} a:hover,a:active{outline:0;} sub,sup{position:relative;font-size:75%;line-height:0;vertical-align:baseline;} sup{top:-0.5em;} sub{bottom:-0.25em;} img{max-width:100%;width:auto\9;height:auto;vertical-align:middle;border:0;-ms-interpolation-mode:bicubic;} #map_canvas img,.google-maps img{max-width:none;} button,input,select,textarea{margin:0;font-size:100%;vertical-align:middle;} button,input{*overflow:visible;line-height:normal;} button::-moz-focus-inner,input::-moz-focus-inner{padding:0;border:0;} button,html input[type="button"],input[type="reset"],input[type="submit"]{-webkit-appearance:button;cursor:pointer;} label,select,button,input[type="button"],input[type="reset"],input[type="submit"],input[type="radio"],input[type="checkbox"]{cursor:pointer;} input[type="search"]{-webkit-box-sizing:content-box;-moz-box-sizing:content-box;box-sizing:content-box;-webkit-appearance:textfield;} input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-decoration,input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-cancel-button{-webkit-appearance:none;} textarea{overflow:
Example from Wikipedia:
body { overflow: hidden; background: #000000; }

Language features

Feature Supported Token Example
Strings "
"Hello world"
Case Insensitive Identifiers
MultiLine Comments /* */
/* A comment
/* This is a single-line comment */ p { color: red; }
File Imports
@import 'custom.css';
Semantic Indentation X
Line Comments X
Ternary operators X
Functions X
Disk Output X
Enums X

Books about CSS on goodreads

title author year reviews ratings rating
HTML, XHTML & CSS for Dummies Ed Tittel 2008 14 109 3.55

Books about CSS from ISBNdb

title authors year publisher
Head First Html With CSS & XHTML Eric Freeman and Elisabeth Freeman and Elisabeth Robson 2005 O'Reilly Media
CSS Cookbook, 3rd Edition (Animal Guide) Christopher Schmitt 2010 O'Reilly Media
Blended Html, Xhtml, and CSS Henry Bojack 2010 Course Technology, Cengage Learning
Pro CSS Techniques (Expert's Voice) Rubin, Dan and Lloyd, Ian and Croft, Jeffrey 2006 Apress
DHTML and CSS Advanced: Visual QuickPro Guide Teague, Jason Cranford 2004 Peachpit Press
HTML, XHTML, and CSS Bible (Bible) 3rd Edition Pfaffenberger, Bryan and Schafer, Steven M. and White, Chuck and Karow, Bill 2004 Wiley
Beginning Web Programming with HTML, XHTML, and CSS (Wrox Beginning Guides) Duckett, Jon 2004 Wrox
HTML, XHTML & CSS QuickSteps Hart-Davis, Guy 2009 McGraw-Hill Education
Programming: Python Programming, JAVA Programming, HTML and CSS Programming for Beginners Academy, iCode 2017 Independently published
Sams Teach Yourself Web Publishing with HTML and CSS in One Hour a Day: Includes New HTML5 Coverage Lemay, Laura and Colburn, Rafe 2010 Sams Publishing
CSS Cookbook Christopher Schmitt 20061017 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Enduring CSS Frain, Ben 2017 Packt Publishing
CSS Quick Syntax Reference Olsson, Mikael 2014 Apress
Beginning HTML with CSS and XHTML Craig Cook; David Schultz 20071018 Springer Nature
Beginning CSS Preprocessors: With SASS, Compass.js and Less.js Prabhu, Anirudh 2015 Apress
The Essential Guide to CSS and HTML Web Design (Essentials) Grannell, Craig 2008 Apress
Pro CSS for High Traffic Websites (Expert's Voice in Web Design) Kennedy, Antony and de Leon, Inayaili 2011 Apress
CSS for Windows 8 App Development (Expert's Voice in Windows 8) Foster, Jeremy 2013 Apress
Responsive Web Design with HTML5 and CSS: Develop future-proof responsive websites using the latest HTML5 and CSS techniques, 3rd Edition Frain, Ben 2020 Packt Publishing
Tailwind CSS Gerchev, Ivaylo 2022 SitePoint
Coding for Kids Ages 9-15: Simple HTML, CSS and JavaScript lessons to get you started with Programming from Scratch Mather, Bob 2020 Independently published
Modern CSS: Master the Key Concepts of CSS for Modern Web Development Attardi, Joe 2020 Apress
CSS Animations and Transitions for the Modern Web Bradley, Steven 2014 Adobe Press
CSS Text: Styling Your Words Meyer, Eric A. 2013 O'Reilly Media
Coding for Absolute Beginners: Master the Basics of Computer Programming with Python, Java, SQL, C, C++, C#, HTML, and CSS Warner, Andrew 2021 Independently published
HTML, CSS and JavaScript All in One, Sams Teach Yourself: Covering HTML5, CSS3, and jQuery Meloni, Julie C. 2014 Sams Publishing
HTML, XHTML and CSS For Dummies Tittel, Ed and Noble, Jeff 2011 For Dummies
Web Design Playground: HTML & CSS The Interactive Way McFedries, Paul 2019 Manning
Build an HTML5 Game: A Developer's Guide with CSS and JavaScript Bunyan, Karl 2015 No Starch Press
Learning PHP, MySQL, JavaScript, CSS & HTML5: A Step-by-Step Guide to Creating Dynamic Websites Nixon, Robin 2014 O'Reilly Media
New Perspectives on Blended HTML and CSS Fundamentals: Introductory Bojack, Henry and Scollard, Sharon 2012 Cengage Learning
Programming: Computer Programming For Beginners: Learn The Basics Of HTML5, JavaScript & CSS (Coding, C Programming, Java Programming, Web Design, JavaScript, Python, HTML and CSS) Connor, Joseph 2016 CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
Computer Programming For Beginners: Learn The Basics of Java, SQL, C, C++, C#, Python, HTML, CSS and Javascript Alvin, Cooper 2017 CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
CSS for Print Designers Graffam, J. D. 2011 New Riders
CSS Mastery: Advanced Web Standards Solutions Collison, Simon and Budd, Andy and Moll, Cameron 2017 Apress
HTML & CSS For Beginners: Your Step by Step Guide to Easily HtmL & Css Programming in 7 Days Academy, iCode 2017 Independently published
Murach's HTML, XHTML, and CSS Anne Boehm 2010 Mike Murach & Associates
AdvancED CSS Lewis, Joe and Moscovitz, Meitar 2009 Apress
CSS Cookbook (Cookbooks (O'Reilly)) Schmitt, Christopher 2006 O'Reilly Media
CSS & CSS3: 20 Lessons to Successful Web Development: 20 Lessons to Successful Web Development [ENHANCED EBOOK] Nixon, Robin 2015 McGraw Hill
Beginning Web Programming with HTML, XHTML, and CSS Duckett, Jon 2008 Wrox
HTML, XHTML, and CSS All-in-One Desk Reference For Dummies Harris, Andy and McCulloh, Chris 2008 For Dummies
HTML, XHTML, CSS and XML by Example: A Practical Guide (By Example Series) Teodoru Gugoiu 2005-07-01T00:00:01Z Teora USA, LLC
CSS Framework Alternatives: Explore Five Lightweight Alternatives to Bootstrap and Foundation with Project Examples Shenoy, Aravind and Prabhu, Anirudh 2018 Apress
Introduction to Web Interaction Design: With HTML and CSS Macaulay, Michael 2017 Chapman and Hall/CRC
HTML and CSS Web Standards Solutions: A Web Standardistas' Approach Persson, Nicklas and Murphy, Christopher 2008 Apress
Beginning HTML with CSS and XHTML: Modern Guide and Reference (Beginning: from Novice to Professional) Cook, Craig and Schultz, David 2007 Apress
Beginning JavaScript and CSS Development with jQuery York, Richard 2009 Wrox
HTML, CSS & JavaScript for Complete Beginners: A Step by Step Guide to Learning HTML5, CSS3 and the JavaScript Programming Language Hawramani, Ikram 2018 Independently published
Mastering Integrated HTML and CSS DeBolt, Virginia 2007 Sybex
New Perspectives on Blended HTML, XHTML, and CSS Bojack, Henry 2007 Thomson Course Technology
Getting StartED with CSS Powers, David 2009 Apress
JavaScript: A Programmer's Companion from Basic through DHTML, CSS and DOM Koch, Stefan 2003 Wiley
HTML & CSS for Beginners: Learn the Fundamentals of Computer Programming (1) (Essential Coding) Foster, Jo 2020-02-28T00:00:01Z Elluminet Press
Essential CSS and DHTML for Web Professionals (2nd Edition) Livingston, Dan 2001 Prentice Hall
Html & CSS Programming: The Ultimate guide on How you can write Html and CSS in Under 10 Hours Dawson, Ted 2015 CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
You Are The Css To My Html: Size 6 x 9 inch - 120 Pages - Lined (Ruled) Notebook/Journal Journal, Programming and Coding Lovers 2019-09-03T00:00:01Z Independently published
Mastering CSS Rich Finelli 43014 Packt Publishing
Html & Css Programming Guide Ramasamy, Venkatesh 2013
Table Layout in CSS Eric A. Meyer 20160613 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
CSS Programming Professional Made Easy Key, Sam 2015-08-21T00:00:01Z
Source Code: Path to Programming CSS Society, Source Code 2019 Independently published
ASP.NET MVC with Entity Framework and CSS Lee Naylor 20160912 Springer Nature
HTML & CSS: The Simplified Beginners Guide to build your websites and Easily Html & CSS Programming in 7 Days Parker, Jacob 2021 Jacob Parker
Beginning Web Programming With Html, Xhtml, And Css Jon Duckett 2008T Wiley
Python Programming In A Day & CSS Programming Professional Made Easy Key, Sam 2015 CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
C++ Programming Professional Made Easy & CSS Programming Professional Made Easy Key, Sam 2015 CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
HTML 5 and CSS 3 programming from basic to applied (with DVD-ROM disc 1)(Chinese Edition) ZHU HONG TAO . ZHAO XI LAI 2014 Tsinghua University Press
Css Fabien Basmaison; Antoine Cailliau 20110223 Hachette
Css 2 Raphaël Goetter 2007 Eyrolles
CSS Mastery Andy Budd; Emil Björklund 20160726 Springer Nature
Beginning Css Richard York 2007 Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, John
CSS Secrets Lea Verou 20150604 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
CSS Text Eric A. Meyer 20130821 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
CSS Master Tiffany B Brown 20181011 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
CSS Floating Eric A. Meyer 20160113 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Modern CSS Craig Buckler; Ilya Bodrov-Krukowski; Claudio Ribeiro; Tiffany B Brown; David Attard; Ahmed Bouchefr 20181022 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
CSS Text Eric A. Meyer 20130821 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
CSS Master Tiffany B Brown 20210815 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
CSS Floating Eric A. Meyer 20160113 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Architecting CSS Martine Dowden; Michael Dowden 20200515 Springer Nature
CSS Secrets Lea Verou 20150604 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
CSS Cookbook Christopher Schmitt 20091215 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
CSS Cookbook Christopher Schmitt 20091215 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Html And Css Micheal Knapp 2017 Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Positioning in CSS Eric A. Meyer 20160413 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Jump Start CSS Louis Lazaris 20130912 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Jump Start CSS Louis Lazaris 20130912 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
CSS in Depth Keith Grant 20180308 Simon & Schuster
CSS Pocket Reference Eric Meyer 20180402 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Flexbox in CSS Estelle Weyl 20170525 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Html & Css For Beginners iCode Academy 2017 CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
CSS Fundamentals [With DVD] Montoya and Christian 2009 Prentice Hall
HTML& CSS for Beginners Jo Foster 2022-04-22 Elluminet Press
Beginning CSS Web Development Simon Collison 20071222 Springer Nature
HTML & CSS QuickStart Guide David DuRocher 20210125 ClydeBank Media
Murach's HTML and CSS Zak Ruvalcaba, Anne Boehm 11/2021 Mike Murach & Associates
Modern CSS with Tailwind Noel Rappin 20210505 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
The Advanced CSS Collection Craig Buckler; Ilya Bodrov-Krukowski; Claudio Ribeiro; Tiffany B Brown; David Attard; Ahmed Bouchefr 20181022 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Getting StartED with CSS David Powers 20100325 Springer Nature
Buku Sakti Html, Css & Javascript Adam Saputra, S.Si. 2019 Anak Hebat Indonesia

Publications about CSS from Semantic Scholar

title authors year citations influentialCitations
An Empirical Study on the Use of CSS Preprocessors D. Mazinanian and Nikolaos Tsantalis 2016 22 1
CSS Preprocessing: Tools and Automation Techniques R. Queirós 2018 3 0
cobol.html · css.html · scala.html

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