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Top 500 Programming Languages

Here are the top 500 programming languages in the PLDB. You can also view all the languages in the PLDB. Rankings are explained here.

title appeared type rank
Java 1995 pl 1
JavaScript 1995 pl 2
C 1972 pl 3
Python 1991 pl 4
SQL 1974 queryLanguage 5
HTML 1991 textMarkup 6
C++ 1985 pl 7
XML 1996 dataNotation 8
PHP 1995 pl 9
Perl 1987 pl 10
MATLAB 1984 pl 11
C# 2000 pl 12
Fortran 1957 pl 13
Ruby 1995 pl 14
MySQL 1995 queryLanguage 15
R 1993 pl 16
JSON 2001 dataNotation 17
Go 2009 pl 18
COBOL 1959 pl 19
CSS 1996 stylesheetLanguage 20
Scala 2004 pl 21
Swift 2014 pl 22
Ada 1980 pl 23
PostgreSQL 1986 queryLanguage 24
Rust 2010 pl 25
Arduino Programming Language 2005 pl 26
Kotlin 2011 pl 27
PowerShell 2006 pl 28
Pascal 1970 pl 29
ARM 1985 assembly 30
Haskell 1990 pl 31
Lisp 1958 pl 32
Lua 1993 pl 33
TypeScript 2012 pl 34
SAS 1976 pl 35
HTTP 1989 protocol 36
Assembly language 1960 assembly 37
Prolog 1972 pl 38
Bash 1989 pl 39
Clojure 2007 pl 40
ISBN 1970 schema 41
Objective-C 1984 pl 42
Mathematica 1988 pl 43
Node.js 2009 pl 44
Elixir 2011 pl 45
Visual Basic 1991 pl 46
Erlang 1986 pl 47
CUDA 2007 pl 48
Scheme 1970 pl 49
Julia 2012 pl 50
Dart 2011 pl 51
Modula-2 1978 pl 52
Tcl 1988 pl 53
VBA 1993 pl 54
ActionScript 1998 pl 55
Regular Expressions 1951 queryLanguage 56
Verilog 1984 hardwareDescriptionLanguage 57
Solidity 2014 contractLanguage 58
Reason 2016 pl 59
BASIC 1964 pl 60
awk 1977 pl 61
Delphi 1995 pl 62
Crystal 2014 pl 63
CoffeeScript 2009 pl 64
F# 2005 pl 65
Maple 1982 pl 66
Elm 2012 pl 67
OCaml 1996 pl 68
PowerPC 1992 isa 69
Eiffel 1986 pl 70
YAML 2001 dataNotation 71
ASP 1996 template 72
Modula-3 1986 pl 73
Racket 1994 pl 74
Yacc 1975 grammarLanguage 75
DOI 2000 schema 76
Smalltalk 1972 pl 77
REST 1996 protocol 78
Groovy 2003 pl 79
D 2001 pl 80
FTP 1971 protocol 81
X86 1978 isa 82
UML 1996 xmlFormat 83
Sage 2005 pl 84
SOAP 1998 xmlFormat 85
Common Lisp 1984 pl 86
GraphQL 2012 queryLanguage 87
VHDL 1983 hardwareDescriptionLanguage 88
LaTeX 1985 textMarkup 89
TLS 1999 protocol 90
Nginx 2004 configFormat 91
APL 1964 pl 92
Smali 2010 assembly 93
OpenCL 2009 pl 94
TCP 1974 protocol 95
Markdown 2004 textMarkup 96
MediaWiki 2002 wikiMarkup 97
LabVIEW G 1986 pl 98
XQuery 2007 pl 99
SMTP 1982 protocol 100
Scratch 2002 visual 101
SPSS 1968 pl 102
LLVM IR 2003 ir 103
Nim 2008 pl 104
Liquid 2008 template 105
Literate CoffeeScript 2013 pl 106
ECMAScript 1997 pl 107
PostScript 1982 textMarkup 108
Visual Basic .NET 2001 pl 109
Chapel 2004 pl 110
SQLite 2000 queryLanguage 111
Red 2011 pl 112
Haxe 2005 pl 113
Pug 2010 template 114
Rexx 1979 pl 115
WebAssembly 2015 bytecode 116
UDP 1980 protocol 117
LFE 2008 pl 118
PureBasic 1998 pl 119
Forth 1970 pl 120
fish 2005 pl 121
ANTLR 1992 grammarLanguage 122
ML 1973 pl 123
MIPS architecture 1985 isa 124
Lasso 1995 pl 125
VBScript 1996 pl 126
Oz 1991 pl 127
CIL 2000 pl 128
Applescript 1993 pl 129
Oberon 1986 pl 130
SVG 2001 textMarkup 131
Tex 1978 pl 132
Idris 2014 pl 133
ABAP 1983 pl 134
Protocol Buffers 2008 idl 135
URL 1994 schema 136
AMPL 1985 pl 137
Simula 1965 pl 138
PureScript 2013 pl 139
Logo 1967 pl 140
sed 1974 pl 141
PicoLisp 1988 pl 142
FLEX 1987 grammarLanguage 143
V 2019 pl 144
RDF 1997 dataNotation 145
Brainfuck 1993 pl 146
BCPL 1966 pl 147
PL/SQL 1991 pl 148
Processing 2001 pl 149
Dylan 1992 pl 150
Standard ML 1990 pl 151
Hack 2014 pl 152
HAML 2006 template 153
Org 2003 textMarkup 154
REBOL 1997 pl 155
GAME 1977 pl 156
OWL 2004 xmlFormat 157
FLUX 2014 pl 158
MIME 1991 textDataFormat 159
DOT 2007 textMarkup 160
Algol 1958 pl 161
Nearley 2014 grammarLanguage 162
idyll 2017 pl 163
Rust MIR 2016 ir 164
Jinja 2006 template 165
MoonScript 2011 pl 166
Terra 2012 pl 167
Fantom 2005 pl 168
Squirrel 2003 pl 169
Monkey 2011 pl 170
Reverse Polish notation 1953 notation 171
BlitzBasic 2000 pl 172
Jison 2009 pl 173
Limbo 1995 pl 174
Agda 2007 pl 175
JSP 1999 template 176
EuLisp 1985 pl 177
ColdFusion 1995 pl 178
SPARC 1987 isa 179
Ballerina 2015 pl 180
Frege 2011 pl 181
MUMPS 1966 pl 182
Occam 1983 pl 183
Coq 1989 pl 184
AutoIt 1999 pl 185
Emacs Lisp 1985 pl 186
XAML 2008 xmlFormat 187
RFC 1969 notation 188
x86 Assembly 1972 assembly 189
Zig 2015 pl 190
GNU Octave 1988 pl 191
XPath 1999 queryLanguage 192
Makefile 1976 pl 193
Lean 2015 pl 194
TOML 2013 dataNotation 195
Hy 2013 pl 196
Nemerle 2003 pl 197
Slim 2011 template 198
NewLisp 1991 pl 199
Zephir 2013 pl 200
Vala 2006 pl 201
X10 2004 pl 202
Icon 1977 pl 203
Turing 1982 pl 204
Flow 2014 pl 205
J 1990 pl 206
QML 2009 pl 207
grep 1974 pl 208
Scilab 1990 pl 209
Mercury 1995 pl 210
Io 2002 pl 211
RPG 1959 pl 212
IA-32 1985 isa 213
PL/I 1964 pl 214
IDL 1977 pl 215
xBase 1986 pl 216
Click 1999 pl 217
Nextflow 2013 pl 218
PostCSS 2013 textMarkup 219
Pony 2012 pl 220
Boo 2003 pl 221
EDN 2012 dataNotation 222
MicroPython 2014 pl 223
QBasic 1991 pl 224
SI 1960 notation 225
Ceylon 2011 pl 226
Java Bytecode 1995 bytecode 227
LOLCODE 2007 esolang 228
SPARQL 2008 queryLanguage 229
JSON5 2012 dataNotation 230
Clean 1987 pl 231
S-expressions 1960 dataNotation 232
RobotFramework 2013 pl 233
Turtle 2011 dataNotation 234
F* 2014 pl 235
Object Pascal 1986 pl 236
SystemVerilog 2002 pl 237
Arc 2001 pl 238
Opa 2011 pl 239
ALGOL 60 1960 pl 240
SuperCollider 1996 pl 241
CLIPS 1985 pl 242
Microsoft BASIC 1975 pl 243
Stata 1985 pl 244
NetLogo 1999 pl 245
Cython 2007 pl 246
Inform 1993 pl 247
SNOBOL 1962 pl 248
Bison 1985 grammarLanguage 249
HCL 2014 dataNotation 250
RAML 2013 yamlFormat 251
reStructuredText 2002 textMarkup 252
Multi-User Forth 1995 pl 253
AGC 1966 assembly 254
WSDL 2000 xmlFormat 255
Office Open XML 2006 xmlFormat 256
AXIOM 1992 pl 257
Factor 2003 pl 258
Sass 2006 stylesheetLanguage 259
PL/pgSQL 1998 pl 260
Whitespace 2003 esolang 261
MariaDB 2009 queryLanguage 262
API Blueprint 2013 pl 263
POV-Ray SDL 1991 pl 264
Pike 1994 pl 265
Morse code 1837 notation 266
CSP 1978 pl 267
Self 1987 pl 268
Isabelle 1986 pl 269
FlatBuffers 2014 idl 270
Deno 2018 pl 271
odin 2016 pl 272
BPMN 2004 visual 273
Ini 1987 dataNotation 274
Batchfile 1985 pl 275
TLA 1999 pl 276
MiniD 2006 pl 277
SYMBOL 1971 pl 278
C-- 1997 pl 279
Wren 2013 pl 280
Bourne shell 1977 pl 281
ATS 2013 pl 282
C3 2019 pl 283
Dafny 2009 pl 284
ClojureScript 2011 pl 285
DNS 1985 protocol 286
Csound 1985 pl 287
S-algol 1979 pl 288
Perl 6 2015 pl 289
Lex 1975 grammarLanguage 290
eC 2004 pl 291
AutoLISP 1986 pl 292
Ninja 2012 template 293
B 1969 pl 294
Puppet 2005 pl 295
Base64 1987 textEncodingFormat 296
Simulink 1984 pl 297
YARA 2008 pl 298
Gnuplot 1986 pl 299
Xojo 1996 pl 300
FoxPRO 1992 pl 301
SGML 1986 textMarkup 302
Alloy 1997 pl 303
GW-BASIC 1983 pl 304
Dhall 2017 dataNotation 305
Visual FoxPro 1995 pl 306
RDoc 2004 textMarkup 307
Ioke 2008 pl 308
Embedded Crystal 2016 template 309
INTERCAL 1972 pl 310
E 1997 pl 311
LiveScript 2011 pl 312
JSON-LD 2010 dataValidationLanguage 313
Z notation 1974 notation 314
Marko 2014 textMarkup 315
Modelica 1997 pl 316
GAMS 1963 pl 317
ERB 2004 template 318
AutoHotkey 2003 pl 319
PEG.js 2010 grammarLanguage 320
G-code 1950 pl 321
halide 2010 pl 322
Objective-J 2008 pl 323
Bicep 2020 jsonFormat 324
Clipper 1985 pl 325
ECL 2000 pl 326
Pod 1997 textMarkup 327
M4 1977 pl 328
AsciiDoc 2002 textMarkup 329
Datalog 1977 pl 330
wisp 2012 pl 331
Coconut 2014 pl 332
x86-64 2000 isa 333
Wolfram Language 1988 pl 334
S 1976 pl 335
HyperCard 1987 pl 336
Gambas 1999 pl 337
Oxygene 2002 pl 338
SPARK 1988 pl 339
Q 2003 pl 340
JSON Schema 2010 dataValidationLanguage 341
MMX instruction set 1997 isa 342
ASN.1 1984 idl 343
JScript 1996 pl 344
Befunge 1993 esolang 345
HyperTalk 1987 pl 346
PowerBuilder 2010 pl 347
DIAGRAM 1980 pl 348
UrWeb 2008 pl 349
Less 2009 stylesheetLanguage 350
NATO phonetic alphabet 1956 notation 351
Miranda 1985 pl 352
COMTRAN 1957 pl 353
Punched tape 1943 notation 354
XS 2002 pl 355
Seed7 2005 pl 356
GAP 1986 pl 357
Twig 2009 template 358
Multics 1967 pl 359
ink 2015 esolang 360
DTD 1996 grammarLanguage 361
EML 1974 textDataFormat 362
Classroom Object Oriented Language 1996 pl 363
Oberon-2 1991 pl 364
Pig Latin 2008 queryLanguage 365
Jython 2001 pl 366
YASnippet 2008 textMarkup 367
FASTQ 2000 textDataFormat 368
Genie 2008 pl 369
Thrift 2007 idl 370
Latte 2008 template 371
Maxima 1982 pl 372
PL/0 1976 pl 373
QuickBASIC 1985 pl 374
Max 1990 jsonFormat 375
SaltStack 2011 pl 376
PRQL 2022 queryLanguage 377
Malbolge 1998 pl 378
Transact-SQL 1984 queryLanguage 379
Scala.js 2013 pl 380
AspectJ 2001 pl 381
XBase++ 1997 pl 382
chrysaLisp 2015 pl 383
SETL 1969 pl 384
KaTeX 2013 textMarkup 385
JFlex 2003 grammarLanguage 386
ALGOL 68 1968 pl 387
starlark 2018 pl 388
LINQ 2007 queryLanguage 389
Free Pascal 1997 pl 390
FreeBASIC 2004 pl 391
EJS 2010 template 392
Falcon 2003 pl 393
Netwide Assembler 1996 assembly 394
Cap'n Proto 2013 idl 395
Dc 1978 pl 396
Atmel AVR 1996 pl 397
CLU 1975 pl 398
DTrace 2005 pl 399
LiveCode 2001 pl 400
unison 2015 pl 401
Slash 2012 pl 402
RMarkdown 2014 textMarkup 403
ABC 1980 pl 404
Bluespec 2000 pl 405
PEG 2002 grammarLanguage 406
NSIS 2001 pl 407
Croc 2006 pl 408
Diff 1974 unixApplication 409
Squeak 1996 pl 410
Altair BASIC 1975 pl 411
Golo 2012 pl 412
Shakespeare 1993 esolang 413
RDFa 2004 xmlFormat 414
WxBasic 2002 pl 415
TreeSheets 2019 visual 416
Stylus 2010 stylesheetLanguage 417
Ion 2016 idl 418
True BASIC 1983 pl 419
Ladder Logic 1994 pl 420
JCL 1964 pl 421
Vim script 1991 pl 422
Augmented Backus-Naur Form 2008 grammarLanguage 423
MPS 2010 grammarLanguage 424
FASTA 2004 textDataFormat 425
commonmark 2014 textMarkup 426
Fennel 2016 pl 427
Pure Data 1996 pl 428
mlir 2019 ir 429
Korn shell 1983 pl 430
Enso 2015 pl 431
Sather 1990 pl 432
TXL 1985 pl 433
Commodore BASIC 1977 pl 434
K 1993 pl 435
RISC-V 2010 isa 436
Luna 2015 pl 437
CWL 2014 pl 438
Dogescript 2013 pl 439
Closure Templates 2009 template 440
SourcePawn 2014 pl 441
WDL 2012 pl 442
CIL 1994 pl 443
Cue 2018 dataNotation 444
Smarty 2006 template 445
beef-lang 2019 pl 446
datascript 2014 queryLanguage 447
Xtend 2011 pl 448
Nu 2007 pl 449
Ren'Py 2004 pl 450
BBCode 1998 textMarkup 451
Eve 2016 pl 452
Tiny BASIC 1975 pl 453
janet 2018 pl 454
Java Properties 1995 dataNotation 455
Ragel 2007 pl 456
ALGOL W 1966 pl 457
Reia 2008 pl 458
Microsoft Small Basic 2008 pl 459
tornado 2009 template 460
jq 2012 queryLanguage 461
EBNF 1977 grammarLanguage 462
Qualcomm Hexagon 2006 assembly 463
GeoJSON 2008 jsonFormat 464
Koka 2012 pl 465
Argdown 2014 textMarkup 466
PIC microcontroller 1975 pl 467
HLSL 2002 pl 468
PARI/GP 1985 pl 469
Caml 1985 pl 470
Fortress 2004 pl 471
Textile 2002 textMarkup 472
Ring 2016 pl 473
Microsoft Macro Assembler 1981 assembly 474
muPad 1997 pl 475
Ron 2015 dataNotation 476
DRAKON 1996 pl 477
Unicon 2008 pl 478
Xtext 2006 grammarLanguage 479
XSLT 1998 xmlFormat 480
HOPE 1978 pl 481
Asm.js 2013 ir 482
Imba 2014 pl 483
Ghostscript 1988 pl 484
dynamo-visual-language 2011 visual 485
High Level Assembly 2011 assembly 486
RPL 1984 pl 487
Gosu 2002 pl 488
OpenVera 2001 pl 489
SIL 2012 ir 490
mermaid 2014 textMarkup 491
VRML 1994 pl 492
gravity 2017 pl 493
MusicXML 2004 pl 494
GLSL 1992 pl 495
Curry 1990 pl 496
ALGOL 58 1958 pl 497
RATFOR 1976 pl 498
IMAP 1986 protocol 499
Hjson 2014 dataNotation 500

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