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Top 500 Programming Languages

Top 500 Programming Languages

Here are the top 500 programming languages in the PLDB. You can also view all the languages in the PLDB. Rankings are explained here.

title appeared type rank
Java 1995 pl 1
JavaScript 1995 pl 2
C 1972 pl 3
Python 1991 pl 4
HTML 1991 textMarkup 5
C++ 1985 pl 6
SQL 1974 queryLanguage 7
PHP 1995 pl 8
XML 1996 dataNotation 9
Ruby 1995 pl 10
R 1993 pl 11
Go 2009 pl 12
Perl 1987 pl 13
C# 2000 pl 14
Scala 2004 pl 15
MATLAB 1984 pl 16
Swift 2014 pl 17
MySQL 1995 queryLanguage 18
JSON 2001 dataNotation 19
Rust 2010 pl 20
Haskell 1990 pl 21
Fortran 1957 pl 22
Lua 1993 pl 23
CSS 1996 stylesheetLanguage 24
TypeScript 2012 pl 25
Scheme 1970 pl 26
Objective-C 1984 pl 27
COBOL 1959 pl 28
Clojure 2007 pl 29
PostgreSQL 1986 queryLanguage 30
Lisp 1958 pl 31
SAS 1976 pl 32
Visual Basic 1991 pl 33
Erlang 1986 pl 34
Mathematica 1988 pl 35
ARM 1985 assembly 36
Kotlin 2011 pl 37
Prolog 1972 pl 38
Julia 2012 pl 39
Pascal 1970 pl 40
Elixir 2011 pl 41
Ada 1980 pl 42
PowerShell 2006 pl 43
ISBN 1970 schema 44
Tcl 1988 pl 45
OCaml 1996 pl 46
Dart 2011 pl 47
Assembly language 1960 assembly 48
Groovy 2003 pl 49
F# 2005 pl 50
CoffeeScript 2009 pl 51
Common Lisp 1984 pl 52
Bash 1989 pl 53
D 2001 pl 54
Smalltalk 1972 pl 55
Solidity 2014 contractLanguage 56
BASIC 1964 pl 57
Crystal 2014 pl 58
Regular Expressions 1951 queryLanguage 59
Racket 1994 pl 60
Nim 2008 pl 61
HTTP 1989 protocol 62
APL 1964 pl 63
Delphi 1995 pl 64
Chapel 2004 pl 65
Forth 1970 pl 66
Elm 2012 pl 67
CUDA 2007 pl 68
Verilog 1984 hardwareDescriptionLanguage 69
awk 1977 pl 70
Eiffel 1986 pl 71
Reason 2016 pl 72
PostScript 1982 textMarkup 73
DOI 2000 schema 74
Haxe 2005 pl 75
PowerPC 1992 isa 76
X86 1978 isa 77
FTP 1971 protocol 78
Maple 1982 pl 79
YAML 2001 dataNotation 80
Node.js 2009 pl 81
LaTeX 1985 textMarkup 82
Emacs Lisp 1985 pl 83
GNU Octave 1988 pl 84
Modula-2 1978 pl 85
Standard ML 1990 pl 86
GraphQL 2012 queryLanguage 87
TLS 1999 protocol 88
fish 2005 pl 89
Tex 1978 pl 90
Dylan 1992 pl 91
Scratch 2002 visual 92
UML 1996 xmlFormat 93
TCP 1974 protocol 94
VHDL 1983 hardwareDescriptionLanguage 95
REBOL 1997 pl 96
LLVM IR 2003 ir 97
Rexx 1979 pl 98
ECMAScript 1997 pl 99
SMTP 1982 protocol 100
MUMPS 1966 pl 101
Arduino 2005 pl 102
Zig 2015 pl 103
Red 2011 pl 104
Idris 2014 pl 105
Pug 2010 template 106
Markdown 2004 textMarkup 107
Modula-3 1986 pl 108
SPSS 1968 pl 109
Self 1987 pl 110
LabVIEW G 1986 pl 111
Vala 2006 pl 112
PureScript 2013 pl 113
Applescript 1993 pl 114
PL/SQL 1991 pl 115
Simula 1965 pl 116
Wren 2013 pl 117
ANTLR 1992 grammarLanguage 118
WebAssembly 2015 bytecode 119
Visual Basic .NET 2001 pl 120
SOAP 1998 xmlFormat 121
Io 2002 pl 122
V 2019 pl 123
BCPL 1966 pl 124
VBScript 1996 pl 125
UDP 1980 protocol 126
HAML 2006 template 127
REST 1996 protocol 128
Hy 2013 pl 129
Deno 2018 pl 130
ASP 1996 template 131
Rust MIR 2016 ir 132
ClojureScript 2011 pl 133
Oz 1991 pl 134
MIPS architecture 1985 isa 135
SQLite 2000 queryLanguage 136
J 1990 pl 137
ActionScript 1998 pl 138
Brainfuck 1993 pl 139
Yacc 1975 grammarLanguage 140
MediaWiki 2002 wikiMarkup 141
SVG 2001 textMarkup 142
Ballerina 2015 pl 143
Boo 2003 pl 144
IDL 1977 pl 145
Sage 2005 pl 146
Logo 1967 pl 147
Hack 2014 pl 148
URL 1994 schema 149
Oberon 1986 pl 150
RDF 1997 dataNotation 151
Protocol Buffers 2008 idl 152
SNOBOL 1962 pl 153
TOML 2013 dataNotation 154
XQuery 2007 pl 155
AMPL 1985 pl 156
CIL 2000 pl 157
OpenCL 2009 pl 158
HCL 2014 dataNotation 159
MoonScript 2011 pl 160
ML 1973 pl 161
AutoIt 1999 pl 162
Fantom 2005 pl 163
Pike 1994 pl 164
Arc 2001 pl 165
PostCSS 2013 textMarkup 166
MIME 1991 textDataFormat 167
FLUX 2014 pl 168
Perl 6 2015 pl 169
Icon 1977 pl 170
Limbo 1995 pl 171
Liquid 2008 template 172
Scilab 1990 pl 173
VBA 1993 pl 174
Cap'n Proto 2013 idl 175
SuperCollider 1996 pl 176
Agda 2007 pl 177
Stata 1985 pl 178
Reverse Polish notation 1953 notation 179
Opa 2011 pl 180
sed 1974 pl 181
QBasic 1991 pl 182
PEG.js 2010 grammarLanguage 183
SPARQL 2008 queryLanguage 184
Wolfram Language 1988 pl 185
Nemerle 2003 pl 186
SPARC 1987 isa 187
JSP 1999 template 188
Ceylon 2011 pl 189
Bison 1985 grammarLanguage 190
Falcon 2003 pl 191
Seed7 2005 pl 192
ColdFusion 1995 pl 193
Ioke 2008 pl 194
Squirrel 2003 pl 195
ALGOL 60 1960 pl 196
Makefile 1976 pl 197
Factor 2003 pl 198
HyperTalk 1987 pl 199
Coconut 2014 pl 200
F* 2014 pl 201
Gnuplot 1986 pl 202
YARA 2008 pl 203
Algol 1958 pl 204
X10 2004 pl 205
jq 2012 queryLanguage 206
Processing 2001 pl 207
Mercury 1995 pl 208
Occam 1983 pl 209
RFC 1969 notation 210
ABAP 1983 pl 211
Sass 2006 stylesheetLanguage 212
XPath 1999 queryLanguage 213
Maxima 1982 pl 214
PureBasic 1998 pl 215
xBase 1986 pl 216
Clean 1987 pl 217
Xojo 1996 pl 218
Eve 2016 pl 219
Lasso 1995 pl 220
Batchfile 1985 pl 221
API Blueprint 2013 pl 222
JSON5 2012 dataNotation 223
Zephir 2013 pl 224
XAML 2008 xmlFormat 225
Slim 2011 template 226
Terra 2012 pl 227
Dafny 2009 pl 228
Koka 2012 pl 229
IA-32 1985 isa 230
Befunge 1993 esolang 231
E 1997 pl 232
Frege 2011 pl 233
PL/I 1964 pl 234
NewLisp 1991 pl 235
DOT 2007 textMarkup 236
grep 1974 pl 237
Coq 1989 pl 238
OWL 2004 xmlFormat 239
LFE 2008 pl 240
Caml 1985 pl 241
Smali 2010 assembly 242
Java Bytecode 1995 bytecode 243
Bicep 2020 jsonFormat 244
S-expressions 1960 dataNotation 245
JScript 1996 pl 246
KaTeX 2013 textMarkup 247
Lean 2015 pl 248
Microsoft BASIC 1975 pl 249
Org 2003 textMarkup 250
K 1993 pl 251
Object Pascal 1986 pl 252
B 1969 pl 253
Guile 1993 pl 254
LOLCODE 2007 esolang 255
Jinja 2006 template 256
Turtle 2011 dataNotation 257
SI 1960 notation 258
FLEX 1987 grammarLanguage 259
SaltStack 2011 pl 260
Nginx 2004 configFormat 261
ABC 1980 pl 262
Monkey 2011 pl 263
SETL 1969 pl 264
SYMBOL 1971 pl 265
Modelica 1997 pl 266
UNLAMBDA 1999 pl 267
ATS 2013 pl 268
SystemVerilog 2002 pl 269
Scala.js 2013 pl 270
AutoHotkey 2003 pl 271
Cython 2007 pl 272
CLU 1975 pl 273
CSP 1978 pl 274
WSDL 2000 xmlFormat 275
Q 2003 pl 276
odin 2016 pl 277
Office Open XML 2006 xmlFormat 278
AXIOM 1992 pl 279
Clipper 1985 pl 280
PicoLisp 1988 pl 281
Oxygene 2002 pl 282
Turing 1982 pl 283
MariaDB 2009 queryLanguage 284
Ninja 2012 template 285
Genie 2008 pl 286
Squeak 1996 pl 287
M4 1977 pl 288
PRQL 2022 queryLanguage 289
ink 2015 esolang 290
Bourne shell 1977 pl 291
AutoLISP 1986 pl 292
Nearley 2014 grammarLanguage 293
BPMN 2004 visual 294
Ini 1987 dataNotation 295
Twig 2009 template 296
x86 Assembly 1972 assembly 297
Semantic Versioning 2011 schema 298
Csound 1985 pl 299
JSON-LD 2010 dataValidationLanguage 300
Flow 2014 pl 301
C-- 1997 pl 302
Less 2009 stylesheetLanguage 303
Pig Latin 2008 queryLanguage 304
halide 2010 pl 305
Morse code 1837 notation 306
Datalog 1977 pl 307
CIL 1994 pl 308
Fortress 2004 pl 309
FlatBuffers 2014 idl 310
ALGOL 68 1968 pl 311
Isabelle 1986 pl 312
LiveScript 2011 pl 313
RPG 1959 pl 314
Pure Data 1996 pl 315
Simulink 1984 pl 316
GW-BASIC 1983 pl 317
RATFOR 1976 pl 318
Korn shell 1983 pl 319
Z shell 1990 pl 320
unison 2015 pl 321
Jython 2001 pl 322
carp 2016 pl 323
Visual FoxPro 1995 pl 324
LiveCode 2001 pl 325
Emojicode 2016 pl 326
SGML 1986 textMarkup 327
Puppet 2005 pl 328
gravity 2017 pl 329
DNS 1985 protocol 330
Marko 2014 textMarkup 331
NetLogo 1999 pl 332
Inform 1993 pl 333
RobotFramework 2013 pl 334
JCL 1964 pl 335
Dogescript 2013 pl 336
Z notation 1974 notation 337
Base64 1987 textEncodingFormat 338
reStructuredText 2002 textMarkup 339
Transact-SQL 1984 queryLanguage 340
INTERCAL 1972 pl 341
LPC 1995 pl 342
GML 1969 xmlFormat 343
tornado 2009 template 344
RMarkdown 2014 textMarkup 345
WDL 2012 pl 346
YASnippet 2008 textMarkup 347
Hjson 2014 dataNotation 348
Sather 1990 pl 349
kaitai 2016 idl 350
Troff 1973 textMarkup 351
HyperCard 1987 pl 352
CLIPS 1985 pl 353
Nextflow 2013 pl 354
JAI 2014 pl 355
wisp 2012 pl 356
Miranda 1985 pl 357
RAML 2013 yamlFormat 358
G-code 1950 pl 359
MDX 2017 textMarkup 360
Dhall 2017 dataNotation 361
MMX instruction set 1997 isa 362
S 1976 pl 363
Luna 2015 pl 364
Thrift 2007 idl 365
Punched tape 1943 notation 366
muPad 1997 pl 367
Pony 2012 pl 368
Ante 2015 pl 369
Multics 1967 pl 370
SPARK 1988 pl 371
Fennel 2016 pl 372
Gosu 2002 pl 373
Unicon 2008 pl 374
mathics 2012 pl 375
AspectJ 2001 pl 376
CPL 1963 pl 377
AsciiDots 2017 esolang 378
Velocity 2003 template 379
CodeQL 2018 queryLanguage 380
walt 2017 pl 381
DTD 1996 grammarLanguage 382
DIAGRAM 1980 pl 383
Pharo 2008 pl 384
AGC 1966 assembly 385
Free Pascal 1997 pl 386
Futhark 2013 pl 387
ISWIM 1966 pl 388
x86-64 2000 isa 389
Atmel AVR 1996 pl 390
RPL 1984 pl 391
HOPE 1978 pl 392
FreeBASIC 2004 pl 393
Max 1990 jsonFormat 394
skip 2018 pl 395
FoxPRO 1992 pl 396
EJS 2010 template 397
FASTQ 2000 textDataFormat 398
NATO phonetic alphabet 1956 notation 399
mustache 2009 template 400
CWL 2014 pl 401
TLA 1999 pl 402
BETA 1983 pl 403
QML 2009 pl 404
Lex 1975 grammarLanguage 405
LilyPond 1996 pl 406
Nu 2007 pl 407
Curry 1990 pl 408
Nial 1981 pl 409
Malbolge 1998 pl 410
Jison 2009 pl 411
DTrace 2005 pl 412
Elvish 2013 pl 413
JOVIAL 1960 pl 414
kitten 2012 pl 415
PEG 2002 grammarLanguage 416
Altair BASIC 1975 pl 417
Stylus 2010 stylesheetLanguage 418
Alloy 1997 pl 419
Objective-J 2008 pl 420
Classroom Object Oriented Language 1996 pl 421
PARI/GP 1985 pl 422
roy 2011 pl 423
LotusScript 1996 pl 424
oil 2016 pl 425
CSV 1972 dataNotation 426
Papyrus 2015 pl 427
NSIS 2001 pl 428
EDN 2012 dataNotation 429
CFML 1995 pl 430
Lily 2011 pl 431
Euphoria 1993 pl 432
QuickBASIC 1985 pl 433
Commodore BASIC 1977 pl 434
Click 1999 pl 435
EBNF 1977 grammarLanguage 436
Smarty 2006 template 437
BeanShell 1999 pl 438
Dc 1978 pl 439
SIL 2012 ir 440
Cg 2003 pl 441
J# 2002 pl 442
Curl 1998 pl 443
COMTRAN 1957 pl 444
LINQ 2007 queryLanguage 445
Cue 2018 dataNotation 446
Nit 2008 pl 447
starlark 2018 pl 448
Whitespace 2003 esolang 449
PL/pgSQL 1998 pl 450
Modula 1975 pl 451
Ladder Logic 1994 pl 452
Tiny BASIC 1975 pl 453
Qalb 2012 pl 454
Microsoft Small Basic 2008 pl 455
ooc 2009 pl 456
ISLISP 2007 pl 457
FASTA 2004 textDataFormat 458
idyll 2017 pl 459
skulpt 2009 pl 460
RDFa 2004 xmlFormat 461
SISAL 1983 pl 462
Observable 2017 pl 463
Felix 2001 pl 464
RISC-V 2010 isa 465
PIC microcontroller 1975 pl 466
GLSL 1992 pl 467
Pizza 2001 pl 468
Cyclone 2001 pl 469
ACL2 1990 pl 470
Epigram 2004 pl 471
PowerBuilder 2010 pl 472
BBC BASIC 1981 pl 473
JADE 1996 pl 474
Microsoft Macro Assembler 1981 assembly 475
ASN.1 1984 idl 476
YoptaScript 2016 pl 477
Ring 2016 pl 478
Yorick 1996 pl 479
Cryptol 2014 pl 480
Joy 2001 pl 481
S-algol 1979 pl 482
Stencil 2018 template 483
Enso 2015 pl 484
Asm.js 2013 ir 485
Mu 2014 pl 486
Fancy 2010 pl 487
Closure Templates 2009 template 488
BBCode 1998 textMarkup 489
VRML 1994 pl 490
BNF 1956 grammarLanguage 491
mlir 2019 ir 492
ALGOL 58 1958 pl 493
datascript 2014 queryLanguage 494
GeoJSON 2008 jsonFormat 495
OpenSCAD 2010 pl 496
Ghostscript 1988 pl 497
MBASIC 1983 pl 498
Qualcomm Hexagon 2006 assembly 499
mgmt 2015 pl 500

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