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SPARQL, aka SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language, is a query language created in 2008.

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SPARQL (pronounced "sparkle", a recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) is an RDF query language, that is, a semantic query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework (RDF) format. It was made a standard by the RDF Data Access Working Group (DAWG) of the World Wide Web Consortium, and is recognized as one of the key technologies of the semantic web. On 15 January 2008, SPARQL 1.0 became an official W3C Recommendation, and SPARQL 1.1 in March, 2013. Read more on Wikipedia...

Example from hello-world:
SELECT ?h WHERE { VALUES ?h { "Hello World" } }
Example from Linguist:
PREFIX foaf: <> SELECT ?name ?email WHERE { ?person a foaf:Person. ?person foaf:name ?name. ?person foaf:mbox ?email. }
Example from Wikipedia:
PREFIX ex: <> SELECT ?capital ?country WHERE { ?x ex:cityname ?capital ; ex:isCapitalOf ?y . ?y ex:countryname ?country ; ex:isInContinent ex:Africa . }

Keywords in SPARQL

add as asc ask base by clear construct copy create data delete desc describe distinct drop false filter from graph group having in insert limit load minus move named not offset optional order prefix reduced select service silent to true undef union using values where with

Language features

Feature Supported Example Token
# [+\-]?\d+
# [+\-]?(\d+\.\d*[eE][+-]?\d+|\.?\d+[eE][+-]?\d+)
Booleans true false
"Hello world"
# A comment
Line Comments
# A comment

Books about SPARQL from ISBNdb

title authors year publisher
Learning SPARQL: Querying and Updating with SPARQL 1.1 DuCharme, Bob 2013 O'Reilly Media
RDF Database Systems: Triples Storage and SPARQL Query Processing Curé, Olivier and Blin, Guillaume 2014 Morgan Kaufmann
Learning SPARQL Bob DuCharme 20130703 O'Reilly Media, Inc.
Learning SPARQL Bob DuCharme 20130703 O'Reilly Media, Inc.

Publications about SPARQL from Semantic Scholar

title authors year citations influentialCitations
From SPARQL to rules (and back) A. Polleres 2007 220 19
PigSPARQL: mapping SPARQL to Pig Latin A. Schätzle and Martin Przyjaciel-Zablocki and G. Lausen 2011 112 12
Sparklis: An expressive query builder for SPARQL endpoints with guidance in natural language S. Ferré 2016 111 6
A SPARQL Extension for Generating RDF from Heterogeneous Formats M. Lefrançois and Antoine Zimmermann and Noorani Bakerally 2017 98 9
Sorry, i don't speak SPARQL: translating SPARQL queries into natural language A. N. Ngomo and Lorenz Bühmann and Christina Unger and Jens Lehmann and D. Gerber 2013 98 2
AskNow: A Framework for Natural Language Query Formalization in SPARQL Mohnish Dubey and Sourish Dasgupta and A. Sharma and Konrad Höffner and Jens Lehmann 2016 70 8
Dynamic Linked Data: A SPARQL Event Processing Architecture L. Roffia and Paolo Azzoni and Cristiano Aguzzi and Fabio Viola and Francesco Antoniazzi and T. S. Cinotti 2018 37 0
SQUALL: A Controlled Natural Language as Expressive as SPARQL 1.1 S. Ferré 2013 30 7
Towards the Novel Reasoning among Particles in PSO by the Use of RDF and SPARQL Iztok Fister and Xin-She Yang and Karin Ljubič and D. Fister and J. Brest and Iztok Fister 2014 24 0
Linked Data Queries as Jigsaw Puzzles: a Visual Interface for SPARQL Based on Blockly Library P. Bottoni and Miguel Ceriani 2015 6 0
SWOBE - embedding the semantic web languages RDF, SPARQL and SPARUL into java for guaranteeing type safety, for checking the satisfiability of queries and for the determination of query result types Sven Groppe and Jana Neumann and V. Linnemann 2009 4 0
Authorization Proxy for SPARQL Endpoints Riste Stojanov and Milos Jovanovik 2017 3 0
Generation of Test Questions from RDF Files Using PYTHON and SPARQL A. Omarbekova and A. Sharipbay and A. Barlybaev 2017 3 0
Tuning Fuzzy SPARQL Queries in a Fuzzy Logic Programming Environment J. Almendros-Jiménez and A. Becerra-Terón and G. Moreno and J. A. Riaza 2019 3 0
An Approach of Automatic SPARQL Generation for BIM Data Extraction Dongming Guo and Erling Onstein and Angela Daniela La Rosa 2020 2 0
DaRLing: A Datalog rewriter for OWL 2 RL ontological reasoning under SPARQL queries A. Fiorentino and J. Zangari and M. Manna 2020 2 0
The Quranic Nature Ontology: From Sparql Endpoint to Java Application and Reasoning S. Khan and Mohammed Mahmudur Rahman and A. B. M. S. Sadi and T. Anwar and S. Mohammed and S. A. Chowdhury 2017 1 0
SQL2SPARQL4RDF: Automatic SQL to SPARQL Conversion for RDF Querying Ahmed Abatal and Khadija Alaoui and L. Alaoui and M. Bahaj 2019 1 0
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