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Modula-3

Modula-3

Modula-3 is a pl created in 1986.

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Modula-3 is a programming language conceived as a successor to an upgraded version of Modula-2 known as Modula-2+. While it has been influential in research circles (influencing the designs of languages such as Java, C#, and Python) it has not been adopted widely in industry. It was designed by Luca Cardelli, James Donahue, Lucille Glassman, Mick Jordan (before at the Olivetti Software Technology Laboratory), Bill Kalsow and Greg Nelson at the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Systems Research Center (SRC) and the Olivetti Research Center (ORC) in the late 1980s. Read more on Wikipedia...


Example from hello-world:
MODULE HelloWorld; IMPORT Io; BEGIN IO.Put ("Hello World\n") END HelloWorld.
Example from the Hello World Collection:
(* Hello World in Modula-3 *) MODULE Hello EXPORTS Main; IMPORT IO; BEGIN IO.Put("Hello World!\n"); END Hello.
Example from Linguist:
(* Copyright (C) 1989, Digital Equipment Corporation *) (* All rights reserved. *) (* See the file COPYRIGHT for a full description. *) (* Last modified on Fri Jun 18 16:18:48 PDT 1993 by wobber *) (* modified on Tue Jun 15 10:07:07 1993 by gnelson *) (* modified on Fri May 21 09:50:56 PDT 1993 by swart *) (* modified on Mon Apr 26 17:22:23 PDT 1993 by mcjones *) (* modified on Wed Nov 6 10:45:09 PST 1991 by kalsow *) (* modified on Fri Sep 28 23:12:34 1990 by muller *) (* The RdClass interface is analogous to the WrClass interface. It reveals that every reader contains a buffer of characters together with methods for managing the buffer. New reader classes are created by importing RdClass (to gain access to the buffer and the methods) and then defining a subclass of Rd.T whose methods provide the new class's behavior. The opaque type Private hides irrelevant details of the class-independent code. *) INTERFACE RdClass; IMPORT Rd; FROM Thread IMPORT Alerted; FROM Rd IMPORT Failure; TYPE Private <: ROOT; SeekResult = {Ready, WouldBlock, Eof}; REVEAL Rd.T = Private BRANDED OBJECT buff : REF ARRAY OF CHAR := NIL; Ungetbuff : REF ARRAY OF CHAR := NIL; Waitingbuff : REF ARRAY OF CHAR := NIL; st : CARDINAL; (* index into buff *) Ungetst : CARDINAL; (* index into Ungetbuff *) Waitingst : CARDINAL; (* index into WaitingBuff *) cur : CARDINAL := 0; (* index into src(rd) *) lo, hi : CARDINAL := 0; (* indexes into src(rd) *) Ungetlo, Ungethi : CARDINAL := 0; (* indexes into src(rd) *) Waitinglo, Waitinghi : CARDINAL := 0; (* indexes into src(rd) *) closed: BOOLEAN := TRUE; (* init method of the subtype should set this to FALSE *) seekable, intermittent: BOOLEAN; METHODS seek (n: CARDINAL; dontBlock: BOOLEAN): SeekResult RAISES {Failure, Alerted}; (* ^rd is locked and not closed. *) getSub (VAR a: ARRAY OF CHAR): CARDINAL RAISES {Failure, Alerted} := GetSubDefault; (* ^rd is locked and not closed. *) length (): INTEGER RAISES {Failure, Alerted} := LengthDefault; (* ^rd is locked and not closed. *) close () RAISES {Failure, Alerted} := CloseDefault; END; (* Let rd be a reader, abstractly given by len(rd), src(rd), cur(rd), avail(rd), closed(rd), seekable(rd), and intermittent(rd). The data fields cur, closed, seekable, and intermittent in the object represent the corresponding abstract attributes of rd. The buff, st, lo, and hi fields represent a buffer that contains part of src(rd), the rest of which is represented in some class-specific way. More precisely, we say that the state of the representation is valid if conditions V1 through V4 hold: V1. the characters of buff in the range [st .. st+(hi-lo)] accurately reflect src. That is, for all i in [rd.lo .. rd.hi-1], rd.buff[rd.st + i - rd.lo] = src(rd)[i] V2. the cur field is in or just past the end of the occupied part of the buffer, that is: rd.lo <= rd.cur <= rd.hi V3. the reader does not claim to be both intermittent and seekable: NOT (rd.intermittent AND rd.seekable) It is possible that buff = NIL in a valid state, since the range of i's in V1 may be empty; for example, in case lo = hi. V4. if closed(rd) then rd.buff = NIL AND rd.lo = rd.hi If rd is valid and cur(rd) is less than rd.hi, we say the reader is ready. More precisely, rd is ready if: NOT rd.closed AND rd.buff # NIL AND rd.lo <= rd.cur < rd.hi If the state is ready, then Rd.GetChar can be implemented by fetching from the buffer. Together V1, V2, and V4 imply that if rd.cur # rd.hi then rd.buff # NIL and NOT rd.closed. Therefore a valid reader is ready if "rd.cur # rd.hi". The class-independent code modifies rd.cur, but no other variables revealed in this interface (except that "Rd.Close" modifies "rd.lo" and "rd.cur" and sets "rd.buff" to NIL in order to maintain invariant V4). The class-independent code locks the reader before calling any methods. Here are the specifications for the methods: The basic purpose of the seek method is to make the reader ready. To seek to a position n, the class-independent code checks whether the reader would be ready with rd.cur = n and if so, simply sets rd.cur to n. If not, it calls rd.seek supplying the position n as argument. As in the case of writers, the seek method can be called even for an unseekable reader in the special case of advancing to the next buffer. The fields with names beginning with "Unget" describe a buffer of characters retained in case they need to be reused by UngetChar. The fields with names beginning with "Waiting" are a buffer once supplied by class-dependent code but temporarily suspended while characters originally saved in the unget and then ungotten are being returned. If NIL#Ungetbuff=buff, we are accessing previously ungotten characters from Ungetbuff^, and Waitingbuff is the buffer most recently provided by seek. Otherwise, buff is the buffer most recently provided by seek. Either way, the fast path in class-independent code for getting characters works the same, using buff, st, lo, and hi, as in the earlier implementation, and ignoring the other buffer fields. Similarly, (class-dependent) seek method bodies use only these same fields. Only UngetChar and class-independent code surrounding seek method calls need be aware of the additional two buffer pointers and their subscripts. There is a wrinkle to support the implementation of CharsReady. If rd is ready, the class-independent code can handle the call to CharsReady(rd) without calling any methods (since there is at least one character ready in the buffer), but if rd.cur = rd.hi, then the class independent code needs to find out from the class implementation whether any characters are ready in the next buffer. Using the seek method to advance to the next buffer won't do, since this could block, and CharsReady isn't supposed to block. Therefore, the seek method takes a boolean argument saying whether blocking is allowed. If blocking is forbidden and the next buffer isn't ready, the method returns the special value WouldBlock; this allows the class-independent code to return zero from CharsReady. The "dontBlock" boolean should be "TRUE" only if the seek method is being used to advance to the next buffer. More precisely, given a valid state where (n # rd.hi) => rd.seekable AND (dontBlock => n = rd.hi) the call res := rd.seek(n, dontBlock) establishes a valid state. Furthermore, if res = Ready then rd is ready and rd.cur = n; while if res = Eof, then rd.cur = len(rd); and finally if res = WouldBlock then dontBlock was TRUE and avail(rd) = cur(rd). The getSub method is used to implement Rd.GetSub and is called with the reader lock held and the reader not closed. Efficient implementations override this method to avoid unnecessary copying by reading directly from the reader source, bypassing the reader buffer. The default implementation is correct for any class, but always copies through the reader buffer. The length method returns the length of a non-intermittent reader. That is: Given a valid state in which rd.intermittent is FALSE, the call rd.length() returns len(rd) without changing the state of rd. An intermittent reader may return the length if it is known, or -1. The close method releases all resources associated with rd. The exact meaning of this is class-specific. "Rd.Close" sets the "buff" field to "NIL", so the method need not do this. When the method is called the state will be valid; validity is not required when the method returns (since after it returns, the class-independent code will set the closed bit in the reader, which makes the rest of the state irrelevant). The remainder of the interface is similar to the corresponding part of the WrClass interface: *) PROCEDURE Init(rd: Rd.T); (* Class-independent initialize rd, including private fields revealed herein. *) PROCEDURE Lock(rd: Rd.T) RAISES {}; (* The reader rd must be unlocked; lock it and make its state valid. *) PROCEDURE Unlock(rd: Rd.T) RAISES {}; (* The reader rd must be locked and valid; unlock it and restore the private invariant of the reader implementation. *) PROCEDURE GetSubDefault(rd: Rd.T; VAR (*OUT*) str: ARRAY OF CHAR): CARDINAL RAISES {Failure, Alerted}; (* rd is locked and not closed. *) (* Implement "getSub" by copying from the buffer, calling the "seek" method as necessary. Clients can override this in order to achieve greater efficiency; for example, by copying directly from the source of the reader into "str". *) PROCEDURE LengthDefault(rd: Rd.T): INTEGER RAISES {Failure, Alerted}; (* The procedure LengthDefault causes a checked runtime error; this represents an error in the (non-intermittent) class implementation. *) PROCEDURE CloseDefault(rd: Rd.T) RAISES {Failure, Alerted}; (* The procedure CloseDefault is a no-op. *) END RdClass.
Example from Wikipedia:
MODULE Person; REVEAL T = Public BRANDED OBJECT name: TEXT; (* These two variables *) age: INTEGER; (* are private. *) OVERRIDES getAge := Age; init := Init; END; PROCEDURE Age(self: T): INTEGER = BEGIN RETURN self.age; END Age; PROCEDURE Init(self: T; name: TEXT; age: INTEGER): T = BEGIN self.name := name; self.age := age; RETURN self; END Init; BEGIN END Person.

Keywords in Modula-3

AND ANY ARRAY AS BEGIN BITS BRANDED BY CASE CONST DIV DO ELSE ELSIF END EVAL EXCEPT EXCEPTION EXIT EXPORTS FINALLY FOR FROM GENERIC IF IMPORT IN INTERFACE LOCK LOOP METHODS MOD MODULE NOT OBJECT OF OR OVERRIDES PROCEDURE RAISE RAISES READONLY RECORD REF REPEAT RETURN REVEAL SET THEN TO TRY TYPE TYPECASE UNSAFE UNTIL UNTRACED VALUE VAR WHILE WITH

Language features

Feature Supported Example Token
Booleans TRUE FALSE
MultiLine Comments
(* A comment
*)
(* *)
Comments
Semantic Indentation ϴ
Line Comments ϴ
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